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1. World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

2. Kiron, D., et al. 2012. “Sustainability Nears a Tipping Point.” MIT Sloan Management Review. Winter 2012. Available online

3. Kiron, D., et al. 2012. N idumolu, R., et al. 2009. “Why Sustainability is now the Key Driver of Innovation.” Harvard Business Review. September 2009. Available online
Lubin, D. and D. Esty. 2010. “The Sustainability Imperative.” Harvard Business Review. May 2010. Available online

4. See for example: KPMG’s “Expect the Unexpected: building business value in a changing world.” Available online
McKinsey & Company’s “Global Survey Results: The Business of Sustainability.” Available online
Boston Consulting Group and MIT Sloan Management Review’s “Sustainability Nears a Tipping Point.” Available online

5. Pesonen, H. and S. Horn. 2013. “Evaluating the Sustainability SWOT as a streamlined tool for life cycle sustainability assessment.” International Journal of Life-Cycle Assessment. Published online: 26 June 2012. Available online

6. Prahalad, C.K. 2010. “Best Practices Only Get You So Far.” Harvard Business Review. April 2010. Available online

7. Porter, M. and M. Kramer. 2011. “Creating Shared Value.” Harvard Business Review. January 2011. Available online

8. Environmental challenges are adapted from “planetary boundaries” outlined Rockstrom, et al. “Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity,” Ecology and Society, 2009. Available online

9. These categories of big trends are based on WRI’s literature review of multiple resources and perspectives on “megatrends” or “metatrends.” Specific trends and perspectives on trends can vary, but in general the literature points to environmental challenges; innovation and technological advances; demographic and social shifts; global economic dynamics; and political and regulatory priorities. See, for example, the categories offered in: Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy. 2010. “Shaping the Future: Solving Social Problems through Business Strategy.” Based on research by McKinsey & Company. Available online
Daheim, C. 2009. “Corporate Foresight: How to organize, run and manage a corporate foresight exercise.” Presentation at October 2009 UNIDO Workshop. Available online, Session 29-30, October 2009.
Kachaner, N. and M. Deimler. 2008. “Does your strategy need stretching?” Boston Consulting Group. Available online
Ernst & Young. 2010. “Business Redefined: A look at the global trends that are changing the world of business.” Available online
Frost & Sullivan. 2011. “Executive Summary: Mega Trends and Implications to Business, Society, and Culture.” Available online
Graf, H. 2004. “Background analysis: trend extrapolation, analysis of framework, megatrend analysis.” In UNIDO, Foresight Methodologies, Training module 2. Prepared by: Centre for Futures Research, St. Gallen, Switzerland. Available online
Roland Berger Strategy Consultants. 2011. “Trend Compendium 2030.” Available online
Stephenson, E. and A. Pandit. 2008. “How Companies Act on Global Trends: A McKinsey Global Survey.” The McKinsey Quarterly. March 2008. Available online
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). 2010. “Strategic Trends Programme: Global Strategic Trends – Out to 2040.” 4th edition, January 2010. Available online

10. See Mark Halper’s article “Stainless Steel?” in Time. 7 February 2011. Available online


a. Gustavsson, J. et al. 2011. “Global food losses and food waste.” UN Food and Agriculture Organization.
b. Addams, L. et al. 2009. “Charting Our Water Future.” 2030 Water Resources Group.
c. United Nations. 2010. “Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010.” UN Food and Agriculture Organization.